specific gravity vs density


The density of a material tells you how close the molecules are packed and how heavy the molecules are. Solids and liquids are often compared with water at 4 C, which has a density of 1.0 kg per liter. What are the applications of specific gravity? Density depends upon the temperature and pressure; on the other hand, specific gravity can be precisely measured at 4-degree centigrade. Density is a property of matter and can be defined as the ratio of mass to a unit volume of matter. All rights reserved. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. The density of iron is 7850 kg/m 3. Main Difference – Density vs. – It is the density of a liquid compared to the density of another material for reference. See the table below: The above table shows the actual hydrometer readings of acid at a specific gravity of 1.265 @ 25 ºC (77ºF). Sorry!, This page is not available for now to bookmark. Gases are often compared with dry air, having a density of 1.29 grams per liter (1.29 ounces per cubic foot) under standard conditions. However, having weighed the sample, you can obtain density by dividing the volume into the sample mass. Specific Gravity. Temperature and pressure are very important in calculating the two.

In this article, we are going to discuss relative density and specific gravity in depth and about their applications, definitions, similarities and differences.

The reference material is air for gases and water for liquids most of the times. Density is defined as the measurement of mass per unit volume. The ratio between the mass of the liquid and its unit volume is called density. Specific gravity is used in industries to find the concentration of different solutions.

It is denoted by ρ, and its units can be gm/ cm3, Kg/ m3, Pounds/ cubic inch. Density is an absolute quantity.

The number generated by a calculation of specific gravity provides the answer. Why do we need a term that already defined a property for a substance (in your case,density) and now we’re comparing it to the density of another substance, and created a whole new term for it. The specific gravity of an object is the density of that object divided by the density of water. The best example of the finding of the density of a substance is like this the mass of the substance is 90 kg, and the volume is 90m. Density is very slightly less than specific gravity. . We take the density and SG of water as 1. Now you can download our Vedantu app to access detailed study material on all these related topics along with online interactive sessions for better clarity on them.

Density is represented by units, whereas specific gravity is not represented by units. Density – The ratio between mass and volume of a liquid determines the density of a liquid. When measuring the density and specific gravity, we use the masses of materials; therefore, these terms depends on temperature and pressure because mass is affected by temperature and pressure. It can be utilised in this calculation of. Specific gravity is dimensionless.

It is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance, which is always water for solid and liquid, for gas it is an equal volume of air or hydrogen. On the other hand, specific gravity refers to the relative density of a fluid with respect to another liquid (usually water). Specific gravity can only find at 4-degree centigrade because of the Density of the substance in water and water volume is changing by changing the temperature. Internal Customers vs. The formula for specific gravity is Specific Gravity, Further, refer to the table drawn below to know about the. – The modern scientific community prefers specific gravity over the badly defined relative density. Here, the value of reference density is 50 g/ m, A cone with radius 1m and height of 3m has a specific gravity of 0.1. Specific gravity finds its applications in the likes of testing if an amount of gold is real. Density has S.I unit which kg per cubic meter; on the other hand, specific gravity has no units because it is the proportion of two same quantities. Further, the unit of measurement for density is kilogram per cubic meter, while SG has no unit since it is a ratio. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water at its densest (at 4 °C or 39.2 °F); for gases, the reference is air at room temperature (20 °C or 68 °F).

Specific gravity is often abbreviated as sp gr. Specific gravity is useful in industries to calculate the concentration of solutions, which are manufactured for specific purposes. Relative density actually, relates the densities of two compounds. We need money to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from our online advertising.

The example of specific gravity is like a substance of density is 60 kg per cubic meter, and the density of the substance in water is 40kg per cubic meter, specific gravity can be obtained by dividing 60 over 40, and the answer is 1.5 with no unit. Calculate the specific gravity of a material whose mass is 10 Kg and volume is 2 cubic metres. It is also known as a specific gravity bottle. Density. Water is generally taken as the reference material for liquids.

That substance will sink to the bottom of the water. Filed Under: Physics Tagged With: apparent specific gravity, definition of density, definition of specific gravity, Density, Pycnometer, relative density, specific gravity, specific gravity bottle. They are not, however, identical measures.

Density and specific gravity are the two commonly used terms that are often confused with each other. Summary – Density vs Specific Gravity.

Usually, water is taken as the reference material for this calculation. It can be found by dividing the density of substance of which specific gravity is to find out and divide it by density of the substance in the water at 4-degree centigrade. Similarly, if the SG of a substance is less than one, it will float on the surface of the water. You end up with a dimensionless quantity (specific gravity) usually expressed as in the following example:2.355 20/20where 2.355 is the specific gravity and 20/20 indicates that the sample density was measured at 20 degrees and the reference water density is for a temperature of 20 degrees. We do not implement these annoying types of ads! Temperature and pressure are two factors that affect the density; for instance, when we increase the pressure, the volume of an object decreases, which enhances the density of that particular object. There is no symbol representation of specific gravity.

Density can be expressed as units; on the flip side, specific gravity is always dimensionless.

She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels.

The dimensional formula of density is [M L-3].

We can denote specific gravity as SG. 2. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Density is the material per unit volume while specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance.

Hence, the value of specific gravity remains constant. Density is depended upon the temperature and pressure as the temperature increases, the volume for the substance is increased, and the density of the substance decreases as in pressure.

If the relative density is zero the mass must be zero.

Please cite your sources… There is an ambiguity in the answer. Density is very slightly less than specific gravity. While the above discussion on specific gravity vs density concepts is quite detailed, there are quite a few related topics which are also crucial for your Physics curricula. Usually, water is taken as the reference material for this calculation.

The main difference between density and specific gravity is its use in measuring this mass of a liquid. Density and specific gravity are both indications of how much mass a substance would occupy in a given volume. 6. For liquids, water is taken as the standard fluid where as for gases air is taken as the standard fluid. So the density of a substance is fined by dividing the mass by volume. The specific gravity of iron related to water with density 1000 kg/m 3 is. The specific gravity calculator determines the relative density of a substance compared to cold freshwater; very useful for knowing if a material floats or sinks, or estimating the amount of alcohol in your homebrew beer.. White Plumeria Flower on Water” (CC0) via Pexels This is mathematically written as density = mass / volume. SG(iron) = 7850 [kg/m 3] / 1000 [kg/m 3] = 7.85. Pycnometers measure volume. Example 5: Specific Weight of Water . Specific Gravity The ratio between the mass of the liquid and its unit volume is called density. Example 4: Specific Gravity of Iron. Density is an absolute quantity; on the flip side, specific gravity is a relative quantity.

@media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } Mass of the material varies with the change in temperature. It’s a measurement of how many times the given material is denser than the reference material.

ASTM Test Methods appropriate for Micromeritics and Particulate Systems Instruments. If a material has a specific gravity less than 1, it will float on water. Baumé (Bé ° ) is a hydrometer scale used to measure the specific gravity of liquids.


The ratio between the weight of a given substance to the density of an equal volume of water or other reference material is known as specific gravity.

The density of water is 1.0 g/ml. The formula for specific gravity is Specific GravitySubstance = ρsubstance / ρReference. What are the specific gravity and density difference? If the relative density of a given substance is greater than a unit the substance sinks in water. Both these concepts hold almost the same idea. However, because the density of pure water is so close to 1 (0.9976 grams per cubic centimeter), specific gravity and density are nearly the same value so long as the density is given in g/cc. Density vs. Pro Lite, Vedantu Density is the material per unit volume. 1. Specific gravity is calculated by dividing the density of a fluid by the density of water. S.I.the unit of density is in kilogram per meter cube. All rights reserved. “Specific gravity of water” By Janhuisman42 – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia. Pycnometer is one of the many different instruments used to determine the specific gravity. Particularly, in industries, these terms are widely important to weigh different substance and to calculate the concentration of liquids. Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session.

Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. Soils containing organic matter and porous particles may have specific gravity values below 2.0. The reference material could be anything, but the most common reference is pure water. Similarly, if we increase the temperature of an object, its density decreases as the volume increases. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. It has several domestic as well as commercial applications. The relative density is pressure and temperature dependent. Specific gravity gives the ratio of the densities of different substances that we want to measure at four centigrade. Density provides an absolute measure, whereas specific gravity provides a relative measure.

Density is represented as the absolute quantity; on the other hand, specific gravity is represented as the relative quantity. It has the SI unit kg m -3 or kg/m 3 and is an absolute quantity. If the density of an object is less than water’s density,  it will float on the surface of the water and vice versa. While density measures this mass per unit volume of a liquid, specific gravity is used for measuring relative density. These concepts are very useful in the food industry, rubber industry and … A cone with radius 1m and height of 3m has a specific gravity of 0.1. unit of Density is kilogram per meter cube, There is no S.I. 1. External Customers, Cytokinesis in Plant Cell vs. Cytokinesis in Animal Cell. Specific gravity can be defined as the ratio of a substance’s weight to the weight of the same volume of water at four degrees Celsius. The same material can have different relative densities in different pressures and temperatures.

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